Measuring instrument is an instrument that measures and shows the limit, or extent, or amount, or quantity, or degree of something. There are various types of instruments used for measurement, ranging from simple objects such as rulers and stopwatches to electron microscopes and particle accelerators.
Depending upon parameters and conditions of an object or environment, measuring devices are selected, which are as follows:
For measuring mass of an object, various types of instruments used are as follows:
- Weighing scale: weighing scales for weighing objects
- Mass spectrometer: Mass spectrometer is a spectroscopic device in which the masses of particles, ions, and isotopes are measured. It separates isotopes according to charge and mass.
For time measurement, following are the instruments used:
- Calendar: A system of timekeeping or naming periods of time, consisting of the beginning and length and divisions of the year
- Clock: An instrument for time measurement.
- Atomic clock: An extremely accurate clock based on the vibrations of an atom or molecule
For measuring length, various types of instruments used are as follows:
- Altimeter: An instrument used to determine altitudes and elevations
- Architect`s scale: An instrument calibrated for measuring distances
- Engineer`s scale: A ruler, or a tool for measuring distances
- Interferometer: An instrument used to measure the wavefront due to interference
- Ruler: A measuring stick made of wood or metal or plastic used for measuring lengths
- Tape measure: A measuring instrument having a narrow strip marked in inches or centimeters and used for measuring lengths
The instrument used for area measurement is,
For measuring angle, various types of instruments used are as follows:
-Sextant: A navigational instrument to determine the vertical position of an object such as the sun, moons or stars.
- Theodolite: Instrument used to accurately measure horizontal and vertical angles
- Protractor: Instrument used for measuring angles
For measuring temperature various instruments used are thermometer,
thermocouple, thermistor and pyrometer, etc while hygrometer is used for measuring humidity.
For measuring pressure various instruments used are barometer, manometer, Pitot tube, anemometer and tire-pressure gauge.
For leveling following instruments are used:
- laser line level
- Dumpy level
In addition to all these, there are different instrument used for measuring other conditions and parameters such as radiation, light, speed, sound, hardness, softness, density, electrical properties, etc.